Water framework directive
Water protection and management (Water Framework Directive)
The European Union (EU) has established a Community framework for water protection and management. Firstly, Member States must identify and analyse European waters, on the basis of individual river basin and district. They shall then adopt management plans and programmes of measures adapted to each body of water.
Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy
The European Union (EC) has established a framework for the protection of:
- inland surface waters;
- transitional waters and
- and coastal waters
This Framework-Directive has a number of objectives, such as preventing and reducing pollution, promoting sustainable water usage, environmental protection, improving aquatic ecosystems and mitigating the effects of floods and droughts. Its ultimate objective is to achieve “good ecological and chemical status” for all Community waters by 2015.
Member States have to identify all the river basins lying within their national territory and to assign them to individual river basin districts. River basins covering the territory of more than one Member State will be assigned to an international river basin district.
Member States are to designate a competent authority for the application of the rules provided for in this Framework-Directive within each river basin district.
Identification and analysis of waters
By 2004 at the latest, each Member State had to produce:
- an analysis of the characteristics of each river basin district;
- a review of the impact of human activity on water;
- an economic analysis of water use;
- a register of areas requiring special protection;
- a survey of all bodies of water used for abstracting water for human consumption and producing more than 10 m³ per day or serving more than 50 persons.
This analysis must be revised in 2013 and every six years thereafter.
Management plans and programmes of measures
In 2009, nine years after the Framework-Directive entered into force, management plans were produced for each river basin district, taking account of the results of the analyses and studies carried out. These plans cover the period 2009-2015. They shall be revised in 2015 and then every six years thereafter.
The management plans must be implemented in 2012. They aim to:
- prevent deterioration, enhance and restore bodies of surface water, achieve good chemical and ecological status of such water by 2015 and to reduce pollution from discharges and emissions of hazardous substances;
- protect, enhance and restore the status of all bodies of groundwater, prevent the pollution and deterioration of groundwater, and ensure a balance between groundwater abstraction and replenishment;
- preserve protected areas.
Member States shall encourage participation by all stakeholders in the implementation of this Framework-Directive, specifically with regard to the management plans for river basin districts. Projects from the management plans must be submitted to public consultation for at least 6 months.
Member States must introduce arrangements to ensure that effective, proportionate and dissuasive penalties are imposed in the event of breaches of the provisions of this Framework Directive.
A list of priority substances selected from among the ones which present a significant risk to the aquatic environment has been drawn up at European level. This list is set out in Annex X to this Framework-Directive. Zinc is not in this priority list.